Springs are the first part of the equation, damping is the second. If we had just springs, it would be ugly. Every time the wheel hit a bump, it would compress the suspension. The spring temporarily stores up this energy but wants to release it as soon as possible, so it tries to extendor reboundpushing the front wheel away from the bike. But it will overshoot, and the suspension will continue in this up-down cycle for a surprisingly long time before settling down. (Watch a clapped-out taxi drive down a bumpy road for a graphic demonstration.) Of course, real roads have more than one bump, so this theoretical, damperless suspension would never settle down and never reach true equilibrium.