Spec-chart jockeys like to to talk peak numbers, but maximum output isn’t everything. Consider the 2019 BMW S 1000 RR. The latest aluminum-framed racer replica from the Bavarian bike maker purportedly produces at least 74 pound-feet of torque from as low as 5,500 rpm all the way up to the new four-banger’s 14,500-rpm redline; old-time Grand Prix racers would have given anything for a powerband that wide. You need only thank BMW’s engineers, who have fitted a variable-valve-timing system called ShiftCam. At 9,000 rpm, a portion of the intake camshaft slides 8mm in five milliseconds to engage a different set of lobes, combining two different engine characters in one smooth, efficient package.